Kidney stone

Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body in the urine stream. A small stone may pass without causing symptoms.If a stone grows to more than 5 millimeters (0.2 in) it can cause blockage of the ureter resulting in severe pain in the lower back or abdomen.A stone may also result in blood in the urine, vomiting, or painful urination. About half of people will have another stone within ten years.

Most stones form due to a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Risk factors include high urine calcium levels, obesity, certain foods,some medications, calcium supplements, hyperparathyroidism, gout and not drinking enough fluids.Stones form in the kidney when minerals in urine are at high concentration.The diagnosis is usually based on symptoms, urine testing, and medical imaging.Blood tests may also be useful. Stones are typically classified by their location:nephrolithiasis (in the kidney), ureterolithiasis (in the ureter), cystolithiasis (in the bladder),or by what they are made of (calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite, cystine).

Kidney stones are hard deposits of minerals and acid salts that stick together in concentrated urine. They can be painful when passing through the urinary tract, but usually don’t cause permanent damage.
The most common symptom is severe pain, usually in the side of the abdomen, that’s often associated with nausea.
Treatment includes pain relievers and drinking lots of water to help pass the stone. Medical procedures may be required to remove or break up larger stones.

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kidney stone symptoms

Pain areas: in the back or side part of the body
Pain types: can be severe, sharp, or sudden in the abdomen
Pain circumstances: can occur during urination
Gastrointestinal: nausea or vomiting
Urinary: blood in urine or frequent urination
Also common: sweating

Kidney stone treatment

Supportive care
Increase fluid intake, Monitoring for changes or improvement, and IV fluids
Medical procedure
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy, Ureteroscopic stone removal, and Laser lithotripsy
Medications
Narcotic, Nonsteroidal anti-Inflammatory drug, and Diuretic
Specialists
Primary Care Provider (PCP), Nephrologist, Paediatrician, Urologist, and Emergency Medicine Doctor

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