Heart and Cardiovascular Diseases

The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Blood provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, as well as assists in the removal of metabolic wastes.In humans, the heart is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest.

In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria; and lower left and right ventricles. Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart. Fish, in contrast, have two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle, while reptiles have three chambers. In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent back flow. The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid. The wall of the heart is made up of three layers: pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis.

Cardiovascular disease includes conditions that affect the structures or function of your heart, such as:

Coronary artery disease (narrowing of the arteries)
Heart attack
Abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias
Heart failure
Heart valve disease
Congenital heart disease
Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy)
Pericardial disease
Aorta disease and Marfan syndrome
Vascular disease (blood vessel disease)

READ  difference between heart attack and cardiac arrest

Specialty  : Cardiology

Types

Coronary artery diseases, stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy.

Prevention

Healthy eating, exercise, avoiding tobacco smoke, limited alcohol intake

Treatment

Treating high blood pressure, high blood lipids, diabetes

Tips to Prevent Heart Disease And Stroke

Take responsibility for your health.
Know your risks
Don’t smoke or expose yourself to second-hand smoke
Maintain a healthy blood pressure
Monitor your cholesterol
Limit your calories
Make exercise a daily habit
Pick your pills wisely
Reduce stress
Stay informed Science changes constantly

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