breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin,fluid coming from the nipple, or a red scaly patch of skin. In those with distant spread of the disease, there may be bone pain, swollen lymph nodes,shortness of breath, or yellow skin.Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity, lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, having children late or not at all,older age, and family history. About 5–10% of cases are due to genes inherited from a person’s parents, including BRCA1 and BRCA2 among others.Breast cancer most commonly develops in cells from the lining of milk ducts and the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.Cancers developing from the ducts are known as ductal carcinomas, while those developing from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas.In addition, there are more than 18 other sub-types of breast cancer.Some cancers, such as ductal carcinoma in situ, develop from pre-invasive lesions.The diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by taking a biopsy of the concerning lump.Once the diagnosis is made, further tests are done to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the breast and which treatments it may respond to.

In the world, breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death. The first four are lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer.
In 2005, breast cancer caused 502,000 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths) in the world.
Among all women in the world, breast cancer is the most common cancer.In the United States, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women,
and the second most common cause of cancer death in women (after lung cancer). In 2007, breast cancer caused about 40,910 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 2% of all deaths) in the U.S. Women in the United States have a 1 in 8 chance of getting breast cancer in their lives. They have a 1 in 33 chance of death from breast cancer.

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There are many more people getting breast cancer since the 1970s. This is because of how people in the Western world live. Because the breast is composed of identical tissues in males and females, breast cancer also occurs in males, though it is less common.

When a person gets breast cancer, they can try to cure it in three ways. Doctors can cut out the cancer (mastectomy or lumpectomy). They can give the person drugs (chemotherapy). They can also try to kill the cancer with energy (radiation). If one cure does not work, they may need to try another.

Specialty

Oncology

Symptoms

Lump in a breast, change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, red scaly patch of skin.

Risk factors

Female, obesity, lack of exercise, alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation,
having children late or not at all, older age, family history, Klinefelter syndrome.

Treatment

Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy.

 

 

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